Table 1

Summary of studies included in the review
Author and year of publication Main focus of paper Relevant aims or hypotheses Participants Clinical measures Impulsivity measure/s Statistical analysis Main results relevant to impulsivity
Ancin et al. (2010) Sustained attention No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 143 Euthymic BD patients SCID Computerised degraded stimulus CPT T test and ANOVA BD group had longer reaction times than controls. No group difference in false alarm rate or response criterion score in any of three CPT blocks
101 Healthy controls HDRS
YMRS Median test for non-parametric data
Vocabulary subtest of WAIS
Bora et al. (2007) Cognitive impairment No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 65 Euthymic BD-I patients (40 euthymic psychotic, 25 euthymic non-psychotic) SCID Conners' CPT II MANOVA Previously psychotic euthymic BD patients made more commission errors than controls. No difference between non-psychotic euthymic BD patients and controls on commission errors. No group differences in hit reaction time
YMRS
30 Healthy controls HDRS
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Brooks et al. (2010) Sustained attention No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 16 Euthymic BD patients over age 50 MINI Conners' CPT II Mann-Whitney U test No group differences in commission error rate or hit reaction time
11 Healthy controls MADRS
YMRS
Ekinci et al. (2011) Impulsivity Hypothesis: ‘some clinical appearances would be differentially related to impulsivity in subjects with BD’ 71 Euthymic BD-I patients SCIDI and II BIS-11 Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA Patient’s scores were significantly higher on total BIS score and on all subscales. They also scored more highly on the impulsiveness scale of the TCI
50 Healthy controls YMRS Impulsiveness scale of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)
HDRS
Etain et al. (2013) Impulsivity Aim: ‘to study trait-impulsiveness in a large population of euthymic BD patients and healthy subjects’ 385 Euthymic BD patients MADRS BIS-10 Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test Patients’ scores were significantly higher than controls on BIS total and all subscale scores
185 Healthy controls BRMAS
Diagnostic Interview of Genetic Studies Kruskal-Wallis
Fleck et al. (2005) Sustained attention No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 25 Manic and mixed BD-I patients with psychotic features SCID Computerised degraded-stimulus CPT ANOVA Patients did not differ to controls on response bias (beta) outcome of CPT
YMRS
23 Remitted BD-I patients HDRS
28 Healthy controls Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms Patients had significantly slower reaction times than controls
Henna et al. (2013) Impulsivity Main hypothesis: ‘euthymic BD and unipolar subjects have higher impulsivity than unaffected relatives and healthy controls’ 54 Euthymic BD patients SCID BIS 11A ANOVA Patients scored more highly than unaffected relatives and healthy controls on BIS total, motor and non-planning subscales
136 Healthy controls YMRS
14 Unaffected relatives HDRS
25 Euthymic unipolar patients
Patients scored higher than controls on attentional impulsivity subscale
Ibanez et al. (2012) Decision-making and reward processing No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 13 Euthymic BD-II patients SCID Iowa Gambling Task ANOVA Only one significant difference between BD group and controls on outcomes of Iowa Gambling Task. BD patients were impaired compared to controls on blocks 4 and 5 of the task
12 ADHD patients MADRS BIS
25 Healthy controls YMRS Go/no go task
BDI
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test
Iosifescu et al. (2009) Cognitive function No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 20 Remitted BD-I and BD-II patients HDRS Conners' CPT T tests BD patients made significantly more commission errors than controls
YMRS
10 Healthy controls Affective Disorder Evaluation
Kaladjian et al. (2009) Response inhibition No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 27 Euthymic BD-I patients SCID Go/no go task T tests No group differences on impulsivity outcomes, including response bias (beta) and reaction time
25 Healthy controls YMRS
HDRS
NART
Kolur et al. (2006) Sustained attention No aims of hypotheses relevant to this review 30 Euthymic BD patients ages 17 to 30. Illness duration <5 years and no more than two affective episodes YMRS CPT Wilcoxon signed rank test No group differences on commission errors. Patients had significantly slower reaction time than controls
HDRS
MMSE Mann-Whitney U test for subgroup analyses Within BD group, patients with a history of two mood episodes made significantly more commission errors than those with only one previous episode
30 Healthy controls MINI
Kung et al. (2010) Sustained attention No aims of hypotheses relevant to this review 51 Euthymic BD patients (22 BD-I and 29 BD-II) HDRS Conners' CPT-II Pearson’s correlation BD-I patients had significantly longer reaction times and more commission errors than BD-II patients and healthy controls
20 Healthy controls YMRS MANOVA
Lewis et al. (2009) Impulsivity Aim: ‘to examine the relationship of impulsivity to clinical status and personality characteristics in patients with BD’ 36 Remitted BD patients Clinical Global Impressions Scale BIS-11 ANCOVA No difference between remitted BD patients and controls on BIS total scores or any of the subscales
25 Subsyndromal BD patients MADRS Pearson’s correlation
45 Syndromal BD patients YMRS
30 Healthy controls SCID
Lombardo et al. (2012) Impulsivity Hypothesis: ‘euthymic individuals with BD and their clinically unaffected siblings would have higher levels of trait impulsivity compared to healthy subjects’ 54 Euthymic BD-I patients SCID BIS-11 Linear mixed model Patients had significantly elevated BIS total and subscale scores compared to siblings and healthy controls
57 Clinically unaffected siblings GAF
HDRS
49 Healthy controls YMRS
Malloy-Diniz et al. (2011) Impulsivity Aim: ‘to assess different impulsivity components in BD sub-grouped by suicidal attempt and healthy controls’ 95 Euthymic BD patients (41 with lifetime history of suicide attempt) MINI CPT-II Mann-Whitney BD patients made more commission errors than controls on the CPT. They had slower hit reaction times than the controls
Brazilian version of BDI Iowa Gambling Task
94 Healthy controls YMRS
Raven’s progressive matrices
BD patients were impaired compared to controls on blocks 3,4 and 5 and overall task performance of the Iowa Gambling Task
Martino et al. (2008) Cognitive functioning No aims of hypotheses relevant to this review 20 Euthymic BD older adults YMRS CPT T test No difference between groups on any of the outcome measures of the CPT
20 Age-matched healthy controls HDRS
Mini-mental state examination
Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III
GAF
SCID
WAIS
Martino et al. (2011) Decision making Aim: ‘to compare a large population of patients with BD types I and II strictly defined as euthymic with healthy controls on measures of decision making’ 85 Euthymic BD patients SCID Iowa Gambling Task ANOVA No difference between BD-I or BD-II patients and controls on any of IOWA outcome measures
34 Healthy controls HDRS
YMRS
Peluso et al. (2007) Impulsivity Hypothesis: ‘bipolar subjects would have higher levels of trait impulsivity than the comparison group’ 24 Depressed bipolar patients HDRS BIS ANCOVA Controls had significantly lower scores on all BIS scales compared to euthymic BD patients
24 Depressed unipolar patients SCID
12 Euthymic bipolar patients
10 Euthymic unipolar patients
51 Healthy controls
Strakowski et al. (2010) Impulsivity Aim: ‘to determine whether abnormalities of impulse control persist across the course of BD’ 31 Euthymic BD patients SCID Logan stop signal task ANCOVA Euthymic BD patients did not differ from controls on any of the behavioural tasks
48 Healthy controls YMRS Delayed reward task
26 Depressed BD patients MADRS Degraded stimulus CPT BIS total score, motor subscale and non-planning subscale were elevated in BD patients compared to controls. ttentional subscale did not differ to controls
NART
Swann et al. (2003) Impulsivity Aims: to investigate impulsivity in manic episodes of BD, compared to euthymic BD patients and controls 25 Euthymic BD patients SCID BIS ANOVA BIS total and sub-scale scores were elevated in euthymic BD patients compared to controls
14 Manic BD patients SADS-C IMT-DMT version of CPT
35 Healthy controls
No difference between euthymic BD patients and controls on IMT-DMT task
Swann et al. (2004) Impulsivity Hypotheses: ‘impulsivity as a trait (BIS-11) would be elevated in either substance abuse or in inter-episode BD, and would be elevated more in subjects with BD and substance abuse’ 30 Inter-episode BD patients (12 with SA history) SCID BIS-11 ANOVA BD patients showed elevated BIS total and subscale scores compared to controls patients
SADS-C IMT-DMT version of CPT
35 Individuals with history of SA
37 Healthy controls
No difference in commission errors between BD patients and controls on IMT-DMT task
Thompson et al. (2009) Executive control No aims or hypotheses relevant to this review 63 Euthymic BD patients SCID Vigil CPT T tests No group difference in commission error rates
63 Healthy controls YMRS ANOVA
HDRS
BDI
Altman Mania Rating Scale
NART
MMSE
Yechiam et al. (2008) Decision making No aims relevant to this review 14 Remitted BD patients SCID Iowa Gambling Task ANOVA No group differences on outcomes for Iowa Gambling Task
14 Acute BD patients YMRS
25 Healthy controls

BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BIS, Barratt Impulsivity Scale; BRMAS, Bech Rafaelsen Mania Scale; CPT, Continuous Performance Test; HDRS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; MADRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MINI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; NART, National Adult Reading Test; SADS-C; Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia- Change version; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; WAIS, Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale.

Newman and Meyer

Newman and Meyer International Journal of Bipolar Disorders 2014 2:2   doi:10.1186/2194-7511-2-2

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